The Battle of Perryville

The Generals

Confederate Leaders - Army of the Mississippi


General Braxton Bragg - Commander Army of the Mississippi

Braxton Bragg was born in Warrenton, NC on March 22, 1817. Graduating from the West Point in1837, his pre-Civil War experience was fighting the Seminole Indians in Florida and the Mexican War. He resigned from the army in 1856 and through his marriage became a planter in Louisiana. Joining the Confederate service he was appointed Brigadier General on March 7, 1861 and assigned to the Gulf with his headquarters in Pensacola, FL. Bragg was promoted to Major General on September 9, 1861 and to General, April 6, 1862, following his services during the Battle of Shiloh. He replaced General P. T. G. Beauregard as Commander of the Army of the Mississippi. After the Kentucky Campaign, he would remain as the commander of the renamed Army of Tennessee and hold this position until his resignation following the Battle of Chattanooga in November 1863. President Davis would then appoint him as his Military Advisor. Following the war, Bragg served as Chief Engineer for the State of Alabama. Eventually moved to Texas, where on September 27, 1876 he dropped dead in the streets of Houston. He is buried in Mobile, Alabama.
Major General Edmund Kirby Smith - Commander Army of Kentucky

St. Augustine, FL was the birthplace of E. Kirby Smith on May 16,1824. His West Point classmates knew him as “Seminole”. He graduated with the Class of 1845. Smith was twice brevetted for gallantry in the Mexican War at Cerro Gordo and Contreras. From 1849 until 1852, he was a professor of mathematics at West Point. He fought in the Indian campaigns in Texas, where in 1861 he was a major in the U. S. 2nd Cavalry. He resigned from Federal service on June 6, 1861 when Florida seceded. Upon entering Confederate service, he was assigned as a Lieutenant Colonel to General Joe Johnston's command in the Shenandoah Valley of Virginia. Smith was promoted to Brigadier General on June 17, 1861. He was wounded at First Manassas. His promotion to Major General came on October 11, 1861. After recovering from his wound, E. Kirby Smith was given command of the District of East Tennessee. He received his promotion to Lieutenant General on October 9, 1862. After the Kentucky Campaign, he was transfer to the Command of the Trans-Mississippi. Kirby Smith was involved in stopping the Federal advance during the Red River campaign. His promotion to General was on February 19, 1864. He surrendered his command on May 26, 1865. After the war, he was President of the Pacific and Atlantic Telegraph Company for two years then President of the Western Military Academy and Chancellor at the University of Nashville. At the time of his death on March 29, 1893, Smith was a Professor of Mathematics at the University of the South, located in Sewanee, TN. He is buried there. Edmund Kirby Smith was the last surviving full general of the Confederacy.
Major General Leonidas Polk - Right Wing Commander (The Confederate Congress had not approved the formation of Corps or the rank of Lieutenant General until after the Battle of Perryville)

Leonidas Polk was born in Raleigh, NC on April 10, 1806. He was a West Point graduate, Class of 1827, were he developed a close friendship with Jefferson Davis. Polk resigned from the Army immediately after graduation and entered the Episcopal ministry. He would become the Missionary Bishop of the Southwest. With the start of the Civil War, Polk joined the Confederate service and through his close ties to Jefferson Davis, was appointed as Major General on June 25, 1861 and given command of Department Number 2 until relieved by General Albert Sidney Johnston. Polk was responsible for breaking Kentucky neutrality. Following the Battle of Perryville, he remained with the Army of Tennessee, even though he was continually at odds with General Bragg. He was promoted to Lieutenant General on October 10, 1862. Bishop Polk would be killed at Pine Mountain Georgia on June 14, 1864. He was initially buried at Augusta, GA but was moved in 1945 to Christ Church Cathedral in New Orleans, LA.
Major General William Joseph Hardee - Left Wing Commander

William Hardee, "Old Reliable" was born in Camden County, GA on October 12, 1815. He graduated from West Point with the Class of 1838. Besides receiving two brevets for his service during the Mexican War, he would serve as Commandant of Cadet at West Point. During the period 1853 – 1855, we wrote Rifle and Light Infantry Tactics, which was published in 1861 and used by both sides as the standard guide during the war. He resigned from the U. S. Army on January 31, 1861 to join the Confederate service. Hardee was promoted to Brigadier General on June 17, 1861 and to Major General on October 7, 1861. He was promoted to Lieutenant General effective October 10, 1862. He would continue his service with the Army of Tennessee and replace Bragg as the Army Commander following Chattanooga. However, he would revert back to the position of Corps commander when General Joseph Johnston took over the command of the army. Hardee would leave the Army of Tennessee after the fall of Atlanta and take over the defense of Savannah, GA. Following the war, Hardee became a planter in Selma, AL. He died in Wytheville, VA on November 6, 1873 while on a business trip. He is buries in Selma, AL.
Major General Benjamin Franklin Cheatham - Division Commander Polk's Wing

Benjamin Cheatham was born in Nashville, TN on October 10, 1820. During the Mexican War, he was a Colonel of Tennessee volunteers and rose to the rank of Major General in the Tennessee militia. He was a farmer in the Nashville region prior to the Civil War. Cheatham was appointed Brigadier General on July 9, 1861 and Major General on March 10, 1862. He would continue service with the Army of Tennessee as both a Division and Corps commander. Cheatham returned to Tennessee after the war. He was an unsuccessful candidate for Congress in 1872. He was appointed Superintendent of State Prisons and eventually, Postmaster of Nashville. He died on September 4, 1886 and is buried in Mount Olivet Cemetery in Nashville.
Brigadier General James Patton Anderson - Division Commander Hardee's Wing

J. Patton Anderson was born in Franklin County, TN on February 16, 1822. He practiced medicine in Hernando County, Mississippi prior to the Mexican War. Following his service in Mexico, he was appointed U. S. Marshall for the Washington Territory and would serve as a delegate to Congress from the territory. He joined the Confederate Army with the start of the war as Colonel of the 1st Florida Infantry. He was promoted to Brigadier General on January 10, 1862. He held a brigade command at Murfreesboro and division command at Chickamauga and Chattanooga. Anderson temporarily commanded the District of Florida prior to being recalled to the Army of Tennessee. He was advance to Major General on February 17, 1864. After the war he returned to Tennessee as Tax Collector for Shelby County. He died in Memphis on September 20, 1872 and is buried in Memphis.
Major General Simon Bolivar Buckner - Division Commander Hardee's Wing

Simon Buckner was born in Hart County, KY on April 1, 1823 and graduated from West Point with the Class of 1844. He received two brevets during the Mexican War. Buckner resigned from the U. S. Army in 1855 and became a businessman in Chicago, IL. He moved back to Kentucky and rose to the rank of Adjutant General for the Kentucky State Guard. After the start of the Civil War, he was offered an appointment as Brigadier General in the Union Army in August of 1861. He declined and joined the Confederates. He entered Confederate service as a Brigadier General effective September 14, 1861. Buckner would be the unfortunate individual to surrender the command of Fort Donelson in February 1862. After being exchange, Buckner was assigned to Mobile to develop the fortifications. He would continue service in Tennessee, as commander in charge of the Department of East Tennessee from May until August of 1863. He would be re-united with the Army of Tennessee in time for the Battle of Chickamauga. He was promoted to Lieutenant General on September 20, 1864 and assigned as E. Kirby Smith's Chief of Staff in the Trans-Mississippi. Following the war, he spent three years in New Orleans prior to his return to Kentucky. He was editor of the Louisville Courier; and in 1887 he was elected Governor. He would be the unsuccessful Vice President candidate for the Gold Party in 1896. Buckner died on January 8, 1914 in Munfordville, KY, the last the senior Confederate generals to die. He is buried in State Cemetery in Frankfort, KY.
Brigadier General Daniel Smith Donelson - Brigade Commander Cheatham's Division

Dan Donelson was born in Sumner County, TN on June 23, 1801. Although he was a West Point graduate with the Class of 1825, he resigned from the army in 1826 to take up life as a Planter in Sumner County, TN. Entering politics, he served in the Tennessee House of Representatives and was elected House Speaker. He joined the Confederate army and was promoted to Brigadier General on September 9, 1861. Donelson would command the District of East Tennessee after the Battle of Murfreesboro. He died on April 17, 1963 in Montvale, TN. His promotion to Major General came after his death on April 22, 1863. Donelson is buried in the Presbyterian Cemetery in Hendersonville, TN.
Brigadier General Alexander Peter Stewart - Brigade Commander Cheatham's Division

AP Stewart, "Old Straight," was born in Rogersville, TN on October 2, 1821. He graduated with the West Point Class of 1842 and resigned from the service in 1845. He became an educator with the position of Chair of the Mathematics and Natural and Experimental Philosophy at Cumberland University in Lebanon, TN and at Nashville University. He joined the Confederate Army and was appointed Brigadier General on November 8, 1861. Stewart was assigned to Major General Polk's command. He was promoted to Major General on June 2, 1863 and to Lieutenant General on June 23, 1864. He would be Polk's replacement as Corps commander. After the war, he returned to teaching at Cumberland University. During the period 1870-1874, he was a businessman in St. Louis, MO. He as appointed Chancellor at the University of Mississippi and held this position until his resignation in 1886. He then became the Commissioner of the Chickamauga and Chattanooga National Military Park. AP Stewart died in Biloxi, MI on August 30, 1908 and is buried in St. Louis.
Brigadier General George Earl Maney - Brigade Commander Cheatham's Division

George Maney was born on August 24, 1826 near Franklin, TN. He was educated at the University of Nashville and graduated in 1845. Served in the Mexican War as a Tennessee volunteer. After the war, he was a lawyer in Nashville. At the outbreak of the Civil War, Maney was elected Colonel of the 1st TN. He received his promotion to Brigadier General on April 16, 1862. Maney would continue service with the Army of Tennessee through the Atlanta Campaign. At Jonesboro he commanded Cheatham's division and was relieved from duty following the battle on August 31, 1864. Post war, Maney became President of the Tennessee and Pacific Railroad. He served as a U. S. Diplomat in South America for Columbia, Uruguay, Paraguay, and Bolivia. Maney died in Washington, D. C. on February 9, 1901 and is buries in Mount Olivet Cemetery in Nashville, TN.
Colonel Preston Smith - Brigade Commander Cheatham's Division

Preston Smith was born in Giles County, TN on December 25, 1823 and educated at Jackson College in Columbia, TN. He was an attorney at the start of the war. Smith was elected Colonel of the 154th Tennessee and was wounded at Shiloh. He was promoted to Brigadier General on October 27, 1862. Preston Smith was killed in action on September 19, 1863 at Chattanooga during a night attack on the Union "Cracker Line". Originally buried in Atlanta, GA, he would be moved to Elmwood Cemetery in Memphis, TN.
Colonel John Austin Wharton - Cavalry Commander Polk's Wing

John Wharton was born on July 3, 1828 in Nashville, TN. His family moved to Texas. He was educated at South Carolina College and return to Brazoria, TX as a lawyer. With the start of the Civil War, he was elected Colonel of the 8th Texas Cavalry. He was promoted to Brigadier General on November 18, 1862. Wharton was killed, by Colonel George W. Baylor of the 2nd Texas Cavalry, in a Houston hotel, on April 6, 1865. He is buried in Austin, TX.

 

Brigadier General John Calvin Brown - Brigade Commander Anderson's Division

John C. Brown was born January 6, 1827 in Giles County, Tennessee. He attended Jackson College in Columbia, TN and became a lawyer. At the beginning of the war, he was elected Colonel of the 3rd Tennessee Infantry. Brown was captured at Fort Donelson. He was exchanges and promoted to Brigadier General on August 30, 1862. He was advanced to Major General on August 4, 1864. He would be wounded at the Battle of Franklin. Following the war he was an attorney in Pulaski, TN. Brown was elected Governor of Tennessee in 1870 and 1872. He was President of the Texas and Pacific Railroad and the Tennessee Coal, Iron and Railroad Company. He died in Boiling Springs, TN on August 17, 1889 and was buried in Pulaski, TN.
Brigadier General Daniel Weisiger Adams - Brigade Commander Anderson's Division

Daniel Adams was born either in May or June of 1821 in Frankfort, KY. He was a lawyer in Mississippi and Louisiana prior to the war. He entered Confederate service as Lieutenant Colonel of the 1st Louisiana Infantry and became Colonel of the unit. He lost his right eye at Shiloh. Adams was promoted to Brigadier General on May 23, 1862. He held a brigade command at Murfreesboro where he received his second wound. At Chickamauga, he would be wounded a third time and captured. He returned to service in command of the cavalry in Alabama. He was paroled in Meridian, MS on May 9, 1865. After the war, he returned to New Orleans and continued practicing law. Adams died on June 13, 1872 and is buried in an unmarked grave in Jackson, MS.
Colonel Samuel Powell - Brigade Commander Anderson's Division

Colonel Thomas Marshall Jones - Brigade Commander Anderson's Division

Thomas Jones was a Virginian, born in Elizabeth City County on March 11, 1832. He was educated at Hampton Academy and was an 1853 West Point graduate. Upon graduation, he joined the 8th U.S. Infantry. In 1861, he was acting aid-de-camp for Major General Davis Twiggs in Texas. He resigned for the U.S. Army on February 28, 1861 and received a commission as a Captain in the Confederate Army on April 4, 1861 and assigned to Pensacola, FL. Braxton Bragg assigned Jones as Chief of Commissary. On January 14, 1862, Jones became Colonel of the 27th Mississippi Infantry. Jones would replace Bragg as commander at Pensacola in March 1862 and become an acting Brigadier General on April 21. This would only last until May, when he was returned to the rank of Colonel. Jones would participate in the Kentucky Campaign and Murfreesboro. J. Patton Anderson was highly critical of Jones' performance, which led to Jones' resignation on February 27, 1863 along with health issues. Jones would reenter the Confederate service and Command at Fort Caswell near Wilmington, NC during 1863-64. He resigned again in 1864. Thomas Jones became a Professor of Agriculture and Commandant of Cadets at the Maryland Agricultural College. (Today the University of Maryland.) Eventually, Jones became the Superintendent of Schools in Warrenton, VA. President Grover Cleveland appointed Jones as an Indian Agent for the Shoshone and northern Arapahoe tribes in Wyoming territory and later as superintendent of Indian Schools in Santa Fe, NM. Thomas Jones died on March 7, 1913 in Prescott, AZ and is buried in the Masonic Cemetery.
Brigadier General St. John Richardson Liddell - Brigade Commander Buckner's Division

St. John Liddell was born at “Elmsley” Plantation near Woodville, Mississippi on September 6, 1815. He spent one year at West Point in1833 then resigned due to low class standing. He became a plantation owner in Catahoula Parrish, LA. He joined the Confederate army and was appointed Brigadier General on July 17, 1862. Liddell served in the Trans-Mississippi area and was part of the Red River Campaign. He was moved to Mobile were he was captured at Fort Blakely on April 9, 1865.
Brigadier General Patrick Ronayne Cleburne - Brigade Commander Buckner's Division

Pat Celburne was born at Bridgepark College, Ireland near Cork on March 17, 1828. He served three years in Her Majesty's 41st Regiment of Foot. He purchased his release from the British Army in 1849 and immigrated to the United States. His first residence was in Cincinnati where he worked as an apothecary. He moved to Helena, Arkansas and was a partner in a drugstore. Cleburne studied law and became an attorney. With the outbreak of the Civil War, he joined the 15th Arkansas Infantry and was elected Colonel. On March 4, 1862 he was advanced to Brigadier General. Advancement to Major General was on December 13, 1862. He continued serving with the Army of the Tennessee until his death at the Battle of Franklin on November 30, 1864. He was initially buried in Franklin, but was moved back to Helena. Following the defeat at Chattanooga, Cleburne suggested that the Confederacy arm the slaves and place them in the armies. Many believe this idea prevented him from gaining a Corps command.
Brigadier General Bushrod Rust Johnson - Brigade Commander Buckner's Division

Bushrod Johnson was born in Belmont County, Ohio on October 7, 1817. He graduated from West Point with the Class of 1840. Prior to the Civil War, he saw action in the Seminole and Mexican wars. He resigned from the army in 1847 and become a teacher, first at the Western Military Institute in Georgetown, KY and then at the Military College of the University of Nashville. Johnson entered Confederate service as a Colonel of Engineers. He was promoted to Brigadier General on January 1, 1862. He was captured at Fort Donelson, but managed to escape and was wounded at Shiloh. He rose to the rank of Major General on May 21, 1864. He transferred to the east and had his division shattered at Saylors Creek. In 1866, he returned to Tennessee and was Chancellor at the University of Nashville. Johnson moved to Brighton, IL to become a farmer. He died on September 12, 1880. He is buried in a cemetery in Miles Station, IL.
Brigadier General Sterling Alexander Martin Wood - Brigade Commander Buckner's Division

SAM Wood was born on March 17, 1823 in Florence, AL. He graduated in 1841 from the Jesuit College of St. Joseph's in Bardstown, KY and became a lawyer. Wood was Solicitor for the 4th Judicial Circuit Court of Alabama from 1851 through 1857. He was an Alabama legislator and editor of the Florence Gazette. He was elected Colonel of the 7th Alabama Infantry. He was promoted to Brigadier General on January 7, 1862. Wood was wounded at Perryville. Fighting under Pat Cleburne at Murfreesboro, his name was not mentioned in Cleburne's official report of the battle, even though all the other brigade commanders were praised. He resigned from the Confederate army on October 17, 1863. Wood returned to the practice of law in Tuscaloosa, AL and was elected a state legislator from 1882 to 1883. He served on the faculty of the University of Alabama from 1889 to 1890. SAM wood died on January 26, 1891 in Tuscaloosa and is buried there.
Colonel Joseph Wheeler - Cavalry Commander Polk's Wing

Joe Wheeler was born in Augusta, GA on September 10, 1836. He completed his education at West Point with the Class of 1859. He resigned from the U. S. Army on April 22, 1861 and offered his services to the Confederates. Wheeler was commissioned as First Lieutenant of Artillery. On September 4, 1861 he was assigned as Colonel of the 19th Alabama Infantry. Bragg made Wheeler his Chief of Cavalry on July 13, 1862. He would be wounded three times and have 16 horse shot from under him. His advancement to Brigadier General was on October 30, 1862 and to Major General on January 20, 1863. Wheeler was captured in Georgia in May of 1865. He served 8 terms as U. S. Congressman from Alabama. He joined the U. S. Army and was appointed Major General of U. S. Volunteers for the Spanish American War. He retired as a Brigadier General on September 10, 1900. Wheeler died in Brooklyn, NY on January 25, 1906 and is buried in Arlington Cemetery.
Brigadier General Henry Heth - Division Commander Army of Kentucky

Henry Heth was the only officer the General R. E. Lee addressed by his given name. He was born on December 16, 1825 in Chesterfield County, VA. He graduated at the bottom of the West Point Class of 1847. His Confederate service began as Colonel of the 45th Virginia Infantry. He was assigned to Floyd's command in western Virginia. Heth was advanced to Brigadier General on January 6, 1862. He joined E. Kirby Smith in eastern Tennessee prior to the start of the Kentucky Campaign and in February 1863 would be transferred to the Army of Northern Virginia. He would command a brigade under A. P. Hill at Chancellorsville and a division at Gettysburg. His service with the Army of Northern Virginia would continue through the end of the war. After the war, he entered the insurance business in Richmond, VA. Heth died in Washington, D. C. on September 27, 1899 and in buried in Hollywood Cemetery in Richmond.
Brigadier General Humphrey Marshall - Division Commander Army of Kentucky

Humphrey Marshall was born in Frankfort, KY on January 13, 1812. A West Point graduate in 1832, he resigned from the army in 1833 to become a lawyer. He served as Colonel of the 1st Kentucky Cavalry in the Mexican War. He was elected to Congress as a Whig in 1848 and 1850. Marshall was appointed Minister to China in the early 1850's. He returned to Congress from 1855 through 1859. With the end of Kentucky's neutrality, Marshall entered Confederate service. Promoted to Brigadier General followed on October 30, 1861. He would resign his commission on June 16, 1862, only to be reappointed four days later. After the Kentucky Campaign, Marshall would see no active service. He resigned again on June 17, 1863, returning to the practice of law in Richmond. Marshall was elected to the 2nd Confederate Congress as Kentucky's delegate. At the end of the war, Marshall moved to Texas, but returned to Louisville in 1866. He died on March 28, 1872 and is buried in State Cemetery in Frankfort, KY.
Brigadier General Thomas James Churchill - Division Commander Army of Kentucky

Thomas Churchill was born on March 10, 1824 in Jefferson County, KY. He was educated at St. Mary's College and Transylvania University and became a lawyer. During the Mexican War, Churchill was a First Lieutenant in the 1st Kentucky Mounted Rifles. He was the Postmaster in Little Rock, Arkansas. At the start of the Civil War, he recruited the 1st Arkansas Mounted Rifles and was in action at Wilson Creek. He was promoted to Brigadier General on March 4, 1862. After the Kentucky Campaign, he commanded the defense at Arkansas Post in January 1863. He received his promotion to Major General on March 18, 1865. Post war, Churchill as the State Treasurer for Arkansas from 1874 until 1880, when he was elected Governor. He died in Little Rock on May 14, 1905 and is buried in Mount Holly Cemetery.
Brigadier General Carter Littlepage Stevenson - Division Commander Army of Kentucky

Carter Stevenson was born on September 21,1817 near Fredericksburg, VA. A West Point graduate with the Class of 1838, he saw service fighting Indians on the frontier and in the Mexican War. On June 25, 1861, he was dismissed from the U. S. Army due to his joining the Confederate service. He was assigned as major with the Confederate Regulars. Stevenson became Colonel of the 53rd Virginia. Advancement to Brigadier General came on February 27, 1862 along with a move to the west. He received his promotion to Major General on October 10, 1862. Following the Kentucky Campaign, he held a division command during the Vicksburg Campaign where he surrendered. After his exchange, he was assigned to the Army of Tennessee and served from Chattanooga through Bentonville. After the war, he was a civil and mining engineer. Stevenson died in Carolina County, VA on August 15, 1888 and is buried in Fredericksburg.